Digital Marketing & Product Executive

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Digital Terminology Decoded

The digital arena is full of technical jargon which can be daunting for those new to the field. This guide will help you decode the terms so that the next time you meet with your digital team, you know exactly what they’re talking about.


A/B Split Test
Testing two variables for a statistically significant influence.

Basically, this is the ability of a website to be used by people with disabilities, including visually impaired visitors using screen readers, hearing impaired visitors using no sound, color blind people, or those with other disabilities. The lower the website’s accessibility, the harder it is for people with disabilities to use. Accessibility is particularly important for healthcare sites, government sites, and for any nonprofits seeking to share information with those with disabilities.

Acceptance testing is a test conducted to determine if the requirements of a specification or contract are met. It may involve user tests, automated tests, and/or performance tests.

A business or service that manages and delivers digital advertising.

An algorithm is a mathematical, computational or statistical method that takes a number of variables into account to output a single, quantifiable number that is a function of all of the variables. A good example of a commonly used algorithm is the one used by Google to determine which pages should rank more highly..

Stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. AJAX is typically used for creating dynamic web applications and allows for asynchronous data retrieval without having to reload the page a visitor is on. The JavaScript on a given page handles most of the basic functions of the application, making it perform more like a desktop program instead of a web-based one.

The text a link uses to refer to your site. This can make a big difference in your site’s search engine results.

A GIF is a bitmap file format often used on the World Wide Web. An animated GIF is a series of individual GIF frames joined together to create an animation. It is perhaps the easiest way to create and view simple animations.

A hybrid word that combines “automatically” and “magically.” Generally, it refers to something that has a complex technical process that’s hidden from users, so that something almost appears to work by magic.

This button, which is located at the top left of a web browser, allows you to go back to the previous web page you were on.

The back end of a website is the part hidden from view of regular website visitors. The back end generally includes the information structure, applications, and the CMS controlling content on the site.

Backlinks are links from other sites back to your own. They’re sometimes also referred to as “trackbacks” (especially on blogs). Backlinks have a huge impact on your sites search rankings. Lots of backlinks from high-ranking sites can greatly improve your search engine results, especially if those links use keywords in their anchor text.

Bandwidth can refer to two different things: the rate at which data can be transferred or the total amount of data allowed to be transferred from a web host during a given month (or other hosting service term) before overage charges are applied. It is generally referred to in term of bits-per-second (bps), kilobits per second (kbs), or other metric measurements. Lower bandwidth internet connections (such as dial-up) mean data loads slower than with high bandwidth connections (like cable or fiber).

This is an ad that appears on a web page which is typically hyperlinked to an advertiser’s website. Banners can be images (GIF, JPEG, PNG), JavaScript programs or multimedia objects (Flash, Java, Shockwave etc.).

An element on a website that is invisible to users while it gathers information. AKA “tracking pixels.”

This term is a carry-over from newspaper publishing days. In newspaper terms, “below the fold” means content was on the bottom half of the page (below the physical fold in the paper). In web design terms, “below the fold” refers to the content that is generally going to be below the point first viewable to the average website visitor in their browser (in other words, viewers would have to scroll down to see the content).

A blog is a type of website that allows users (bloggers) to post entries on different topics and lets readers comment on these posts. Blog types range from being personal diaries to news commentaries. Blogs are easy to update, encourage repeat visits, create fresh content and natural links. If your company is not involved in the blogosphere – you’re lost.

The world of blogs, bloggers and blog posts. The blogosphere has evolved rapidly since its inception and is destined to grow even more.

Saving the web address of a web page or website so that it may be easily found again. Bookmarks can be managed with a browser or with an online tool.

The list of all websites you have bookmarked are your bookmarks. These are called “favourites” in Internet Explorer.

A website’s bounce rate is the percentage of people who leave the site from the same page they entered the site, without clicking through to any other pages. This can be a good indicator of how good a website’s navigation is, as well as an indicator of the quality of the site’s content (a very high bounce rate doesn’t bode well for either of those things).

Distinctive name or trademark that identifies a product or manufacturer.

A measure of how quickly a brand is recognized or called to mind.

Breadcrumbs are the bit of navigation elements that generally appear near the top of a give web page that show you the pages and subpages the appear before the page you’re on. For examples, on a blog, the breadcrumbs might look something like: Home > Category > Year > Month > Post (or they might be a lot simpler that that). The breadcrumbs term comes from the fairy tale “Hansel and Gretel.”

Browser refers to the program a website visitor is using to view the web site. Examples include Safari, Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera, and Internet Explorer.

Stands for Business to Business. When businesses sell products/services to other businesses and not to consumers.

Stands for Business to Consumers. When businesses sell products/services to consumers.

Cached files are those that are saved or copied (downloaded) by a web browser so that the next time that user visits the site, the page loads faster.

CTA. A phrase written to motivate the reader to take a specific action and is usually situated at the bottom of a page. These actions can include signing up for a newsletter, contacting the company or booking a holiday.

Completely Automated Turing Test To Tell Computers and Humans Apart. A program that asks a user to complete a simple test to prove they are human and not a computer. The most common test is to retype a distorted image of numbers and text into a box that a computer would be unable to read.

Also referred to simply as CSS, Cascading Style Sheets are used to define the look and feel of a web site outside of the actual HTML file(s) of the site. In recent years, CSS has replaced tables and other HTML-based methods for formatting and laying out websites. The benefits to using CSS are many, but some of the most important are the simplification of a site’s HTML files (which can actually increase search engine rankings) and the ability to completely change the style of a site by changing just one file, without having to make changes to content.

A marketing project in its entirety, from conception through creation and buying to tracking and final analysis.

Client-side refers to scripts that are run in a viewer’s browser, instead of on a web server (as in server-side scripts). Client-side scripts are generally faster to interact with, though they can take longer to load initially.

A user action, such as clicking an ad with their mouse or touching the screen of a mobile device

The pattern of clicks as well as the entry and exit points of a user’s interaction with a website.

The number of times a link was clicked by a visitor.

Expressed as a percentage, this refers to the total clicks on a link divided by the number of times that link was shown.

Also known as a CMS, the Content Management System is a backend tool for managing a site’s content that separates said content from the design and functionality of the site. Using a CMS generally makes it easier to change the design or function of a site independent of the site’s content. It also (usually) makes it easier for content to be added to the site for people who aren’t designers.

The percentage of visitors to a website who sign up offers or buy products.

In web design terms, a comment is a bit of information contained in a site’s HTML or XHTML files that are ignored by the browser. Comments are used to identify different parts of the file and as reference notes. Good commenting makes it much easier for a designer (whether the original designer or someone else) to make changes to the site, as it keeps it clear which parts of the code perform which functions. There are different comment formats for different programming and markup languages.

Small text files sent from a web server to a browser, then returned by the browser each time it logs on to that server. Advertisers use cookies to monitor the number of ads that have been shown to a visitor, while they are used by websites to gauge numbers of unique visitors.

Cost per action, a pricing method which calculates cost based on the number of times a user takes action based on an ad (conversions).

Cost per click, a pricing method which calculates cost based on the number of times a user clicks on an ad.

Cost per day, a payment model where advertisers pay on a daily basis for their ads to be displayed on a particular website.

Cost per lead, a payment model determined by the number of website visitors who clicked on a particular ad. Prices range, on average, from $1-$10. AKA “pay per lead (PPL)” or “cost per inquiry (CPI).”

Cost per mille, a pricing method which calculates cost based on the number of impressions (per 1000).

Harnessing the skills, talents and ideas of a broader community, usually through social media.

A CSS framework is a collection of CSS files used as the starting point to make XHTML and CSS web sites quickly and painlessly. They usually contain CSS styles for typography and layout.

Click-through rate, the percentage of impressions that results in a click through. For example if a banner was clicked on 87 times after being shown 1000 times, it would have a CTR or click-through rate of .087 or 8.7% (87/1000 = 0.087×100 = 8.7).

Cybersquatting occurs when a domain name that contains the name of a well-known brand/subject/trademark i.e. is purchased with no intention of development, but rather to be sold off to the highest bidder.

A link to a page that no longer exists. Search engine spiders check these types of links and eventually eliminate them from search engine results. Also see Link Rot.

Deep linking exists when a user clicks on a link and is taken to a page that is not the homepage, but another page that exists within the site’s structure. The landing page where the user is taken to is usually one that is not easily found within the site.

Deprecated code is code that is no longer included in the language specifications. Generally this happens because it is replaced with more accessible or efficient alternatives.

Stands for Dynamic HyperText Markup Language. DHTML fuses XHTML (or any other markup language), the DOM, JavaScript (or other scripts), and CSS (or other presentation definition languages) to create interactive web content.

Stands for Domain Name Service (alternately Domain Name System or Domain Name Server). Basically, it’s the thing that converts IP addresses into domain names. DNS servers are provided with the IP address of your web server when you assign your domain name to those servers. In turn, when someone types your domain name into their web browser, those DNS servers translate the domain name to the IP address and point the browser to the correct web server.

The doctype declaration specifies which version of HTML is used in a document. It has a direct effect on whether your HTML will validate.

Stands for Document Object Model. It’s a language-independent, cross-platform convention for representing objects in XML, XHTML, and HTML documents. Rules for interacting with and programming the DOM are specified in the DOM API.

The domain is the name by which a website is identified. The domain is associated with an IP address. Domains can be purchased with any combination of letters, hyphens (-), and numbers (though it can’t start with a hyphen). Depending on the extension (.com, .net, .org, etc.), a domain can be anywhere up to 26 to 63 characters long.

Denial of Service Attack is an activity where millions of computers attempt to repeatedly contact a single computer (victim). Due to the volume of activity the victim’s computer is unable to cope and subsequently crashes.

Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.

Content such as text, image and form fields on a web page that change according to each user’s needs and information.

Short for electronic commerce. It’s the buying and selling of goods online, through websites. Products sold through e-commerce can be physical products that require shipping, or digital products delivered electronically.

Electronic Customer Relationship Management.

In XML, an element is the central building block of any document. Individual elements can contain text, other elements, or both.

Em is a unit of measurement for sizing fonts and other elements within a web page relative to the item’s parent element. A 1em font is equal to the point size for the font already defined in the parent element (2em would be twice the current size; .5em would be half the current size).

Email marketing is the most effective of all online marketing tactics. It is extremely cost effective, can be highly targeted and customized, is measurable and best of all takes advantage of the consumer’s most prolific touch point with the Internet, their inbox.

An embedded style is a CSS style written into the head of an XHTML document. It only effects the elements on that page, instead of site-wide as a separate CSS file does. Style in an embedded style sheet will override styles from the linked CSS file.

Mathematical algorithms used to encode data in order to protect it from unauthorized use.

The final user of a product or service.

Ex is a measurement for font height or size relative to the height of a lowercase “x” in that font family.

Otherwise known as XML. XML is a markup language used for writing custom markup languages. In other words, XML describes how to write new languages (it’s sometimes referred to as a “meta” language because of this). It also serves as a basic syntax that allows different kinds of computers and applications to share information without having to go through multiple conversion layers.

This is a CSS document that is written in a separate, external document. The biggest advantage to using an external style sheet is that it can be linked to by multiple HTML/XHTML files (which means changes made to the style sheet will affect all the pages linked to it without having to change each page individually).

Favicons are tiny (generally 16×16 pixels, though some are 32×32 pixels), customizable icons displayed in the web address bar in most browsers next to the web address. They’re either 8-bit or 24-bit in color depth and are saved in either .ico, .gif or .png file formats.

Security software which monitors and authorizes access.

A fixed width layout has a set width (generally defined in pixels) set by the designer. The width stays the same regardless of screen resolution, monitor size, or browser window size. It allows for minute adjustments to be made to a design that will stay consistent across browsers. Designers have more control over exactly how a site will appear across platforms with this type of layout.

The focal point of a web site is the spot on a web page that they eye is naturally drawn to. This could be an image, a banner, text, Flash content, or just about anything else. You want to make sure that whatever is acting as your focal point is the most important part of your site.

The fold is a term carried over from newspaper design and pagination (where the fold referred to the physical fold in the paper). The fold in a website is the point on the webpage that rests at the bottom of someone’s browser (in other words, to see anything below the fold, they would have to scroll down). There are varying opinions on how important the fold is in web design.

Font family is a group designation for defining the typefaces used in CSS documents. The font family tag generally lists multiple fonts to be used, and usually ends with the generic font category (such as “serif” or “sans-serif’).

In CSS, the font style refers solely to whether a font is italic or not.

The font weight refers to how thick or thin (bold or light) a font looks.

The front-end is basically the opposite of the back-end. It’s all the components of a website that a visitor to the site can see (pages, images, content, etc.) Specifically, it’s the interface that visitors use to access the site’s content. It’s also sometimes referred to as the User Interface.

Abbreviation for File Transfer Protocol, a standard for transporting files online.

A targeting dimension that describes a user’s physical location, such as their city or state.

Graceful degradation refers to a website’s ability to have elements that may take advantage of the capabilities of newer browsers done in a way that allows users with older browsers to still view the site in a manner that at least allows access to basic content. It also applies to making sure that if one small portion of your site doesn’t work in someone’s browser, it doesn’t break your entire site for them.

Also referred to by its acronym: GUI. A graphical user interface uses an input device (like the mouse) and visual representations of how the user is able to interact with a web application. In other words, it’s all the front-end stuff you see on a web application. It’s purpose is to allow you to interact with a web application without having to enter code.

Also referred to a “hex” numbers, they are a base-16 numbering system used to define colors online. Hex numbers include the numerals 0-9 and letters A-F. Hexadecimal numbers are written in three sets of hex pairs. Because screen colors are RGB (Red, Green, Blue), the first pair defines the red hue, the second pair defines the green hue, and the third pair defines the blue.

Contrary to popular belief, a hit does not represent a single visitor to a website. A hit is actually a request for a single file from your web server. This means one page can actually generate multiple hits, as each page generally has more than one file (an html or other base file, a css file, multiple images, etc.) and each one is requested from the server whenever the page is loaded. Some marketing people like to quote hits to unknowing consumers as the number makes their site sound like it’s getting a whole lot more traffic than it actually is.

The .htaccess file is the default directory-level configuration file on Apache servers. They are also known as “distributed configuration files.” Configuration directives contained in the .htaccess file apply to the directory in which the file is placed as well as all of its subdirectories. Within the .htaccess file things like authorization and authentication, rewriting of URLs, cache control and customized error responses can all be specified.

Stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It’s the primary language used to write web pages. HTML is primarily intended as a way to provide content on websites (with CSS handling the layout and stylistic options), though it can also be used to determine how that content is displayed.

Stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol. HTTP is a set of rules for transferring hypertext requests between a web browser and a web server.

Similar to HTTP, HTTPS stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol over SSL (Secure Socket Layer) or, alternately, HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure. Like HTTP, it’s a set of rules for transferring hypertext requests between browsers and servers, but this time it’s done over a secure, encrypted connection.

A hyperlink is a link from one web page to another, either on the same site or another one. Generally these are text or images, and are highlighted in some way (text is often underlined or put in a different color or font weight). The inclusion of hyperlinks are the “hyper” part of “hypertext.”

Hypertext is any computer-based text that includes hyperlinks. Hypertext can also include presentation devices like tables or images, in addition to plain text and links.

Short for Inline Frame. An iframe is used to display one or more web pages within another normal web page

A single display of a web page, mobile app, or other digital product. An impression does not have to be viewed or clicked on to count as an impression.

In CSS, elements that don’t have a pre-defined style will take on the style of their parent element within the document tree.

Elements with CSS written directly around the element it affects, instead of in a separate style sheet or header style.

Internet Service Provider – this is the company that is providing you access to the Internet e.g. MWEB, AOL, Yahoo! etc.

A popular scripting language that is used on websites to perform client side actions without requiring full page refreshes. Examples include web analytics for page tagging and page animation

A word or words used by a searcher on a search engine. In SEO, keywords are the words that a website is optimized to rank for and in PPC, keywords are bid on by advertisers. In Online Reputation Management, a keyword is a term that is used when searching the Internet for mentions.

This relates to the number of times a keyword/key phrases appear on a webpage. This divided by the total number of words that appear on a page gives you a percentage. The higher the better – but not too high. You don’t want to be penalized for keyword stuffing.

The number of times a keyword or key phrase appears on a website

Two or more words that are combined to form a search term/query – often referred to as keywords. It is usually better to optimize for a phrase rather than a single word as more searches will search for a phrase rather than a word as they want more specific and relevant content.

This term refers to where the keywords/phrases targeted by your SEO efforts rank amongst the search engines – if your targeted terms do not appear on the first 3 pages, start worrying.

The process of researching what searchers are actually searching for. Copy optimization revolves around the selection of the best keywords/key phrases. There are a multitude of keyword research tools out there, which will help you discover the best possible keywords to use.

Stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (or sometimes Perl or Python), and is referring to the specifications of a web server (defining the operating system, web server, database, and scripting language, in that order). One of the advantages of LAMP setups is that the software used is all from free and open sources.

A landing page is the page where a visitor first enters a website. Oftentimes, a special landing page is created to elicit a specific action from the new visitor (usually in connection with an advertising or marketing campaign).

The length of time it takes for a page to open completely in the browser window.

This refers to the coding applied to a text document to change it into an HTML, XML, or other Markup Language document.

Meta data is the data contained in the header that offers information about the web page that a visitor is currently on. The information contained in the meta data isn’t viewable on the web page (except in the source code). Meta data is contained within meta tags.

A meta tag is an HTML tag used to include meta data within the header of your web page.

A mobile phone, PDA or other handset.

An open source, Database Management System which is available for both Linux and Windows. Based on goals of speed, robustness and ease of use, this system stores information for use on websites.

Navigation refers to the system that allows visitors to a website to move around that site. Navigation is most often thought of in terms of menus, but links within pages, breadcrumbs, related links, pagination, and any other links that allow a visitor to move from one page to another are included in navigation.

Like etiquette but on the net, netiquette are the social rules that govern online interactions. An example of a net no-no would be IMing someone in caps (this means you’re SHOUTING).

Nesting refers to putting one HTML element within another element. When this is done, the elements have to be closed in the reverse order from how they were opened.

NoFollow is an attribute of a hyperlink, indicating that the link is not necessarily endorsed by the website and is ignored by search engine spiders.

A NoIndex page is a HTML meta tag (at page level) telling the search engine spiders visiting your site not to display the page.

A non-breaking space (also referred to as  ) is a white-space character that isn’t condensed by HTML. It’s primary function is to hold open table cells or add spacing between words (or a the beginning of paragraphs if an indent is desired).

Open source refers to the source code of a computer program being made available to the general public. Open source software includes both web-based and desktop applications. Open source programs are generally free or very low cost and are developed by teams of people, sometimes comprised mostly of volunteers.

The process by which a user agrees to receiving messages from a company. Opt in messages, therefore, cannot be considered as spam.

The process by which a user elects to stop receiving messages from a company. If a user continues to receive messages after opting out these messages can be considered to be spam.

These are the listings generally found on the left hand side of a SERP and are not influenced by direct financial payments. These listings are results based on factors such as keyword relevancy within a webpage: SEO is used to boost success.

A pageview is a request for an entire web page document from a server by a visitor’s browser. In other words, for each page view your site had, someone (or a search engine spider) looked at that page.

Placing ads for products or services on search engines (listings appear at the top of the page and on the right hand side) and on content sites across the Internet. These ads are typically small snippets of text linked to pages.

Short for “permanent link.” Generally used only on blogs, a permalink is a link that is the permanent web address of a given blog post. Since most blogs have constantly-changing content, the permalink offers a way for readers to bookmark or link to specific posts even after those posts have moved off the home page or primary category page.

A plug-in is a bit of third party code that extends the capabilities of a website. It’s most often used in conjunction with a CMS or blogging platform. Plug-ins are a way to extend the functionality of a website without having to redo the core coding of the site. Plugins can also refer to bits of third-party software installed within a computer program to increase its functionality.

Unrequested window that opens on top of the currently viewed window.

Pay per Click. Buying sponsored adverts on search engine results pages and content pages and only paying for those ads on a performance basis.

Property is a CSS term and is roughly equivalent to an HTML tag. Properties are what define how a style should appear on a given web page.

Basis for measuring the quality of keywords and determining minimum PPC bids. This score is calculated by measuring a keyword’s click-through rate, ad text relevancy, the keyword’s historical performance and the quality of the landing page.

A full keypad, similar to the one found on computers.

In search, ranking is used to describe the relative position of a web page in the SERPs.

Also referred to as RSS. RSS is a standardized XML format that allows content to be syndicated from one site to another. It’s most commonly used on blogs. RSS also allows visitors to subscribe to a blog or other site and receive updates via a feed reader.

The URL of the web page that a user was on before reaching yours. The server’s logs capture referral URLs and store them in their log files. Furthermore, if a user used a search engine to find your website, the key phrases they used to find your site will be embedded in the referring URL. Intelligent log analyzers can then use this data to track how many visitors originate from each key phrase.

Refers to the physical number of pixels displayed on a screen (such as 1280×1024). Unlike in print, display resolution does not refer to the number of pixels or dots per inch on a computer screen, as this can be changed by changing the resolution of the screen (which, of course, does not change the physical size of the screen). The resolution of an image, however, is often referred to in terms of pixels per inch, though this has very little effect on how the image is displayed on screen.

Technology that features more refined images as well as audio and video. Rich media ads frequently allow visitors to interact with a banner without leaving the page on which it appears (e.g., movie ads that expand and play a trailer on the host page).

A file written and stored in the root directory of a website that restricts the search engine spiders from indexing certain pages of the website.

Return on Investment. The ratio of cost to profit. An example of this is advertising spend as a percentage of the revenue that it generates.

Generally, a schema is an XML document used in place of a DTD to describe other XML documents.

Generally refers to a portion of code on an HTML page that makes the page more dynamic and interactive. Scripts can be written in a variety of languages, including JavaScript.

In CSS, the selector is the item a style will be applied to.

Search Engine Marketing. This is the process of getting a website to achieve top rankings for its chosen key phrases on SERPs.

In semantic markup, content is written within XHTML tags that offer context to what the content contains. Basic semantic markup refers to using items like header and paragraph tags, though semantic markup is also being used to provide much more useful context to web pages in an effort to make the web as a whole more semantic.

Search Engine Results Page. The page that shows the results for a search on a search engine. In terms of SEO, websites should aim to be the first result on the SERP.

Server-side refers to scripts run on a web server, as opposed to in a user’s browser. Server-side scripts often take a bit longer to run than a client-side script, as each page must reload when an action is taken.

On a website, a page that links to every other page in the website and displays these links organised according to the information hierarchal structure.

Stands for Simple Object Access Protocol. It’s an XML-based protocol exchanging information across the internet to allow an application on one site to access an application or database on another site.

The media that is published, created and shared by individuals on the Internet, such as blogs, images and video. Sites like Facebook, Pinterest, Linkedin and YouTube are sites that promote and enable is type of content.

In the online sense, this refers to a type of website model where individual members become part of a broader virtual community. Sites like Facebook, Pinterest, Linkedin and YouTube.

A specification is a document that offers an explicit definition and requirements for a web service or technology and generally includes how the technology is meant to be used, along with the tags, elements, and any dependencies.

An automated program that scans or crawls web pages to gather information for search engines. Also called trawlers, crawlers and robots, or bots.

A way for an advertiser to sponsor a section of a website. As a sales technique, sponsorship works best when the web page is relevant to the advertiser’s products or services.

A descriptive term for websites where users typically stay longer than normal.

Media playback directly from the internet.

A tag is a set of markup characters that are used around an element to indicate its start and end. Tags can also include HTML or other code to specify how that element should look or behave on the page.

Classification and division into ordered categories, usually hierarchical. In social media, taxonomy can refer to the categorization of content on the Internet.

A template is a file used to create a consistent design across a website. Templates are often used in conjunction with a CMS and contain both structural information about how a site should be set up, but also stylistic information about how the site should look.

This refers to the visitors that visit a website.

The number of individual people visiting the website at least once within a specific period of time. Each individual is only counted once.

Stands for Uniform Resource Locator. A site’s URL is its address, the item that specifies where on the Internet it can the found.

Usability refers to how easy it is for a visitor to your site to use your site in its intended manner. In other words, are navigation, content, images, and any interactive elements easy to use, functioning the way they were intended, and that your intended target visitor will not need any special training in order to use your site.

User Experience is a term used to describe the overarching experience a person has as a when interacting with a particular product or service, its delivery, and related artifacts, according to their design. The first requirement for exemplary UX is to meet the exact needs of the customer, without any fuss.

Valid web pages are those that return no errors based on the type of HTML/XHTML specified in the doctype declaration at the beginning of the file. In other words, the code used on the page conforms to the specifications for that version of HTML/XHTML. This can be checked through various validation services, most commonly the one from W3C.

The spread of a message quickly across the Internet, largely by “word-of mouth”. It mimics a virus because of the speed at which is transferred and the number of people that it reaches. Viral Marketing is an effective form of marketing that yields a good ROI if successful.

A web page is a single document, generally written in HTML/XHTML, meant to be viewed in a web browser. In many cases, web pages also include other coding and programming (such as PHP, Ruby on Rails, or ASP). Web sites are generally built from multiple interlinked web pages.

A web server is a computer that has software installed and networking capabilities that allow it to host web sites and pages and make them available to internet users located elsewhere. There are a few different setups that can be used for a web server, including the LAMP setup mentioned earlier.

Standards are specifications recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium for standardizing website design. The main purpose of web standards is to make it easier for both designers and those who create web browsers to make sites that will appear consistent across platforms.

A window or a text box for user interaction. An area on a page hosted by a third party, generally used for a small application or syndicated content.

Stands for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language. Basically, XHTML is HTML 4.0 that has been rewritten to comply with XML rules.

Stands for Extensible Markup Language. XML is a specification for creating other, custom markup languages. It’s an extensible language because it allows for the user to define the mark-up elements.

A scannable barcode which can be read by certain mobile applications (by taking a photo of the barcode) and convey information such as URLs etc. Also known as a QRC or Quick Response Code.

A permanent feature that channels traffic from one URL to another.

An error message that means that the page could not be found.

August 26, 2017